WELCOME
SASKATCHEWAN ATHLETES!
The following “Nutrition Check Up” is designed to help you maximize your sporting
performance through proper nutritional practices.  For a more in-depth and personal
nutritional assessment, please contact the Sport Medicine and Science Council of
Saskatchewan  by phone at 1-888-350-5558

HockeyStickThis package was put together by Brenda Comfort, M.Sc., P.Dt.

and Stephanie Jones of the Sports Medicine and Science
Council of Saskatchewan, 2001.

Introduction

Welcome to “Nutrition Check Up”!  This program has been designed to assist you in evaluating your diet.
It will allow you to compare how you are eating to the minimum recommendations for your sport.  It will assist you in planning some changes to your diet so you can fuel your muscles for performance!  If at any time you click on a link and want to go back to your previous spot, click the Back button at the top of your screen.

You may click any menu item and it will take you directly to that section.  To begin your assessment, click“One Page Food Record”.  You will want to print this page and record all of the foods you had to eat and drink today.  Nextclick“Serving Requirements For Your Sport”Click on your sport.  Now you can compare what you ate and drank to the minimum requirements recommended for your sport.  How did you do?  What changes will you make?

MENU

How Will a Good Diet Benefit My Performance?

One-Day Food Record

What is in One Serving?

Serving Requirements for Your Sport

Foods to Fuel Your Muscles

Pre-competition Meals

During Competition

Post Competition Meals

Summary

References

 

How will a good diet benefit my performance?

By selecting a variety of products, in high enough quantities from all the food groups, you will obtain all the essential nutrients required for maximal physical and mental function. These 6 key nutrients are:

        1.     Water
        2.     Carbohydrate
        3.     Protein
        4.     Fat
        5.     Vitamins
        6.     Minerals
Click on each of the 6 key nutrients above to help you understand exactly why they are so important.  Remember, this is just a brief overview.  Contact the SMSCS to talk to a Sport Nutritionist for further details about fueling for your sport.

1. Water – The Forgotten Nutrient

Water is critical to athletic performance.  However, it is also often the most neglected nutrient.  Approximately 65% of your body weight is water.  Water assists in a number of body processes including digestion and elimination of waste products from the body (urine and feces).  It is the major component of blood and acts as a  coolant for working muscles and helps maintain normal body temperature.

Under normal environmental temperatures and activity levels, the average adult requires around 2000ml/day, that is the equivalent to 8 cups a day.

WaterGlasses
As an athlete however, your fluid requirements are significantly greater. In addition to ingesting extra fluid prior to and post-workout/competition, current sport nutrition recommendations are that athletes should drink about 125-150 ml of cool water every 10-20 minutes during workouts and in competition to minimize fluid loss.  Dehydration has a negative impact on performance!
Requirements vary depending on the individual and environmental conditions. Do remember though, that it does not have to be hot for you to become dehydrated.  If your activity is greater than 1 hour, you may benefit from extra energy that a sports drink provides.
2. CarbohydrateWheatSheaf

Carbohydrate serves several functions in the body although the athlete is concerned predominantly with its ability to supply energy, either aerobically or anaerobically.  Carbohydrate produces energy for your muscle to do work up to three times more quickly than fat. You get most of your carbohydrate from Grain Products and Fruit & Vegetables.

To increase your carbohydrate intake, select whole grains, vegetables and fruits.  They are not only full of energy, they are packed full of vitamins and minerals.  With the exception of competition time, select simple sugars less often as they lack nutrients, minerals and vitamins (Wilkens, 1997)
3. Protein
Lemonade

Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. The body needs 13 non-essential amino acids and 9essential amino acids. Although both groups are essential for health and peak performance, essential amino acids can only be obtained in large enough quantities from the diet.

The major function of protein is to provide structure in muscles, tendons ligaments, skin, hair and nails.  It is necessary to build and repair these tissues.  Proteins are also found in blood.  For example, hemoglobin carries oxygen to working muscles and antibodies help to fight infections.

You can get most of your protein from Milk Products and Meat & Alternatives.

4. Fat
IceCream

As an athlete, you may feel under pressure to lose weight. In many sports, excess body fat may contribute to a reduction in performance (by reducing the body’s efficiency due to its effect upon the strength–weight ratio). Fat from food has more than twice as many calories as either carbohydrate or protein.  However, it is less efficient as a fuel because of the amount of oxygen it requires.

Fat also plays an important role in our bodies.  It is the primary fuel used during low intensity aerobic activity and also helps the body to pick up and transport vitamins in the body. Fat protects the organs from collisions and aids temperature regulation. For these reasons, you should not exclude fat from your diet completely.

Some dietary fat is naturally present in some Milk Products and Meat & Alternatives.  However, the majority of fat in our diet comes from the fat that we add to our foods such as salad dressings, sauces, margarine/butter added to grain products or vegetables, etc.  If you are trying to reduce fate intake, start by decreasing the use of these added fats in your diet.
5. Vitamins
Orange

An adequate level of vitamins must be present so your body functions properly.  For example, Vitamin D aids calcium absorption and therefore helps maintain strong bone while some vitamins play an important role in releasing energy from food.

Vitamins can be found in all the food groups, though one food group will not contain every vitamin that you need. Vitamin supplementation should not be necessary if you are consuming a diet of sufficient quality, quantity and variety (Brewer, 1994).  However, for a busy athlete, a multivitamin supplement can be selected to provide “Nutrition Insurance”.
6. Minerals
Bone

Minerals are essential to life processes. Minerals are used as building blocks for body tissue such as bone and are components or involved in many metabolic processes in the body.  Some of the physical processes regulated or maintained by minerals include muscle contraction, oxygen transportation, nerve impulse conduction, acid-base balance of the blood, and maintenance of body water supplies (Williams, 1999).

Like vitamins, minerals are spread throughout all the food groups so make sure you dig into all the food groups!

One-Day Food Record
Print this page and list below all the food you eat and drink today.  For each item record the number of servings from the appropriate food group.  Recording accurate serving sizes is important when evaluating your diet.  To assist you on what is a serving, click on What Is One Serving.

FoodRecord
What Is One Serving?

Your body needs food. Not any old food though. Different parts need different nutrients. Just like a car, if you put the wrong gas in the tank it will run for a while but it will not perform as well as if it received the recommended fuel. Therefore, toobtain enough of the right stuff, make sure you are eating foods from all the food groups listed below. Click on each food group to find out what is in one serving of each food group.  To determine how many servings you need for each food group click Serving Requirements For Your Sport.


FoodGroupsWeb

What is One Serving of Grain Products?
(1 cup = 250ml)
    ·     1 slice of bread (whole-wheat, white, rye)Bread
    ·     2 bread stick
    ·     1 slice raisin bread, unfrosted
    ·      ½ bagel
    ·     ½ hamburger  or hotdog bun
    ·     ½ English muffin
    ·     1 small roll, biscuit or muffin
    ·     ½ pita
    ·     1 corn or flour tortilla (6 inch)
    ·     1 waffle, reduced fat
    ·     30g ready-to-eat breakfast cereal
    ·     ¼ cup muesli
    ·     ¾ cup cooked cereal
    ·     ½ cup cooked Oats
    ·     ½ cup cooked rice or pasta
    ·     2 rice cakes
    ·     3 tbsp dry cornmeal
    ·     3 tbsp flour (dry)
    ·     3 graham crackersSlicedBread
    ·     8 Animal crackers
    ·     2-5 whole-wheat crackers
    ·     24 Oyster crackers
    ·     ¾ oz pretzels
    ·     3 cups popcorn (no fat added)
    ·     15-20 snack chips, fat-free (tortilla, potato)
    ·     Melba toast

What is One Serving of Vegetables and Fruit?
(1 cup = 250ml)
    ·     ½ grapefruit

    ·     1 medium sized apple, banana, kiwi, nectarine, peach or orangeCarrots

    ·     1 melon wedge

    ·     ½  cup fruit or vegetable juice

    ·     1  cup leafy raw vegetables (e.g. spinach or lettuce)

    ·     3 tbsp dried fruit

    ·     ½ cup cooked, raw, fresh, frozen or canned vegetables

    ·     ½ cup cooked, raw, fresh, frozen or canned fruit

    ·      1 cup mixed salad

    ·     2 tbsp raisins

    ·     ¾ cup fresh pineapple

    ·    ½ papayaApple

    ·     ¾ cup blackberries or blueberries

    ·     1¼ cup strawberries

    ·     1 cup raspberries

    ·     2 small plums

    ·     4 fresh apricots

    ·     3 dates or dried prunes

What is One Serving of Milk Products?
(1 cup = 250ml)
    ·     1 cup milk (skimmed, 1%, 2%, whole milk)

    ·     1 cup nonfat or low-fat butter milkMilkandCheese

    ·     1 cup goats milk

    ·     ½ cup evaporated skim milk

    ·     1/3 cup (dry) nonfat dry milk

    ·     ¾ cup plain nonfat yogurt

    ·     250g nonfat or low-fat fruit-flavored yogurt

    ·     50g cheese

    ·     2 slices processed cheese

What is One Serving of Meat & Alternatives?
(1 cup = 250ml)
Eggs
    ·     1/3 cup tofu

    ·     ½ to 1 cup cooked beans or lentils

    ·     1-2 eggs

    ·     2 tbsp peanut butter

    ·     50-100g (2-3oz.) of cooked lean meat, poultry or fish

    ·     50-100g canned fish (1/3 to 2/3 can)

    ·     7-8 oysters

    ·     3 medium sardines

What is One Serving of Extras?
(1 cup = 250ml)
    ·     2 tsp sour cream

    ·     1 tsp butter, margarine or oil

    ·     1 tsp regular mayonnaiseChocolatbar

    ·     ¼ cup salsa

    ·     5 olives

    ·     40ml soft drink

    ·     2 tsp oil salad dressing

    ·     ½ cookie

    ·     1 tsp sugar/honey/syrup

    ·     1 tsp jam/jelly

    ·     1 hard candy

    ·     1 tbsp ketchup (catsup)

What if the food contains products from
more than one food group?
Many foods, ready meals especially, will contain products from more than one food group. Here are just some examples of foods that need to be broken down into their parts.
Pizza (ham & pineapple)

  • 3 servings of Grain Products (8” crust)
  • 1 serving of Fruit & Vegetables (1/4 cup of pineapple and ¼ cup of tomato sauce)
  • 1 serving of Milk Products (50g cheese)
  • 1 serving of Meat & Alternatives (50g ham)
(Canada Food Guide, 1997)

Chow mein (2 cups)

  • 1 serving of Grain Products
  • 1-2 servings of Meat & Alternatives
  • 1 serving of Extra
(Williams, 1999)

The following products are grain products prepared with fat
(therefore count as Grain Products plus 1 Extra)

  •  2 pancakes (4” across)
  • ½ cup chow mein noodles
  • ½ cup croutons
  • 16-25 French fried potatoes (plus 2 extras)
  • 1 small muffin
  • 2 taco shells
  • ¼ cup granola
  • 2in. square brownie
  • 2 small cookies with cream filling
  • 3 cups of microwave popcorn
  • 1 waffle
  • 5 vanilla wafers
  • 4-6 whole-wheat crackers, fat added
(Williams, 1999)

 

Serving Requirements for Your Sport
Everyone is built differently and we all function at different speeds. Lifestyles vary and training will affect people in different ways.  Even the position you play will shape what you eat and then shape you! Therefore, use the serving requirements for different sports as guides rather than strict rules of elite sports nutrition. If you are in a Category 2 sport and typically train more than 7 times a week (fitness and strength rather than skill based), click on Category 2b Sports instead.

Click on your sport  (or the nearest equivalent) from the lists below to find your nutritional requirements.

Category 1 Sports                   Category 2a Sports              Category 3 Sports
Category 2b Sports*

. Baseball & Softball Cycling (road)
Curling Basketball Iron Man
Dance Bobsled Long Distance Track
Diving Snowboarding Marathon
. Alpine Skiing .
Figure Skating Field Athletics (javelin etc.) Triathlon
Golf  Football Ultra Marathon
Gymnastics Hockey (Ice or Field) X-Country Mountain
. . Biking
Sailing Kayaking* X-Country Skiing
Synchro Swimming Rowing* .
. Soccer* .
. Swimming* .
. Track Athletics (<1500m)* .
. Volleyball* .
. Waterpolo* .

 

Category 1 Sports
The colored bars below represents the minimum number of servings that you need based on the demands of your sport.  Athletes are built very differently and require different amounts of fuel.  You may require more food than the minimum number of servings.  Use this as a guide!

Throughout the day when you eat or drink one serving, fill in the relevant bar chart box. Do not worry if one day you do not achieve the right number of servings, just make sure you get enough next time.

Check to see that your diet is “balanced”.  Balance means that you are eating the minimum number of servings from all food groups.  If you are eating more food from one group and not enough from another group, what changes might you make?

When you eat in relation to when you train is important for re-fueling your muscles.  Click Foods to Fuel Your Muscles to give you some suggestions about what and when to eat following training.

Category1Graph

          Grain
Products
    Vegetables
& Fruit 
      Milk
Products 
      Meat & 
Alternatives
    Water

Extras (list them here)

———————————————————————————————————————

Category 2a Sports
The colored bars below represents the minimum number of servings that you need based on the demands of your sport. Athletes are built very differently and require different amounts of fuel.  You may require more food than the minimum number of servings.  Use this as a guide!

Throughout the day when you eat or drink one serving, fill in the relevant bar chart box. Do not worry if one day you do not achieve the right number of servings, just make sure you get enough next time.

Check to see that your diet is “balanced”.  Balance means that you are eating the minimum number of servings from all food groups.  If you are eating more food from one group and not enough from another group, what changes might you make?

When you eat in relation to when you train is important for re-fueling your muscles.  Click Foods to Fuel Your Muscles to give you some suggestions about what and when to eat following training.

Category2Graph

  Grain
  Products
Vegetables
& Fruit 
Milk
Products
Meat &
Alternatives
Water

 

Extras (list them here)

———————————————————————————————————————

Category 2b Sports
The colored bars below represents the minimum number of servings that you need based on the demands of your sport. Athletes are built very differently and require different amounts of fuel.  You may require more food than the minimum number of servings.  Use this as a guide!

Throughout the day, when you eat or drink one serving, fill in the relevant bar chart box. Do not worry if one day you do not achieve the right number of servings, just make sure you get enough next time.

Check to see that your diet is “balanced”.  Balance means that you are eating the minimum number of servings from all food groups.  If you are eating more food from one group and not enough from another group, what changes might you make?

When you eat in relation to when you train is important for re-fueling your muscles.  Click Foods to Fuel Your Muscles to give you some suggestions about what and when to eat following training.

Category2bGraph

Grain
Products
Vegetables
& Fruit
Milk
Products
Meat &
Alternatives
Water

Extras (list them here)

———————————————————————————————————————

Category 3 Sports
The colored bars below represents the minimum number of servings that you need based on the demands of your sport.  Athletes are built very differently and require different amounts of fuel.  You may require more food than the minimum number of servings.  Use this as a guide!

Throughout the day when you eat or drink one serving, fill in the relevant bar chart box. Do not worry if one day you do not achieve the right number of servings, just make sure you get enough next time.

Check to see that your diet is “balanced”.  Balance means that you are eating the minimum number of servings from all food groups.  If you are eating more food from one group and not enough from another group, what changes might you make?

When you eat in relation to when you train is important for re-fueling your muscles.  Click Foods to Fuel Your Muscles to give you some suggestions about what and when to eat following training.

Category3Graph

Grain
Products
Vegetables
& Fruit
Milk
Products
Meat &
Alternatives
Water

 

Extras (list them here)

———————————————————————————————————————

Foods to Fuel Your Muscles
Athletes need to fuel their muscles with foods high in carbohydrate.  To re-fuel your muscles after training, you should consume foods that provide at least 50 grams of carbohydrate within 30 minutes after your training session.  A meal high in carbohydrate should be eaten within 2 hours after training.
REMEMBER:  Always include water with your meals and snacks.

Foodstofuelgrain
Adapted from Sports Medicine Council of Alberta (1999) and Fuel 2.1a Pro (2000)
Foodstofuelveggies
Adapted from Sports Medicine Council of Alberta (1999) and Fuel 2.1a Pro (2000)

What Should I Eat Before a Competition?
Any pre-competition meal, regardless of the sport should do the following:

    1.     Allow for the stomach to be relatively empty at the start of competition.
    2.     Help to prevent or minimize stomach upset.
    3.     Help avoid feeling hunger, lightheaded, or fatigued.
    4.     Provide adequate fuel supplies, primarily carbohydrate, in the blood and muscles.
    5.     Provide an adequate amount of water.

(Williams, 1999)

Pre-event meals are consumed approximately 2-4 hours before the event and should contain approximately 500 Calories. Because protein and fat take longer to leave the stomach, the meal should be high in carbohydrate, lower in protein and low in fat.

Avoid gas formers like beans, spicy foods that may elicit heartburn, and bulk foods like bran products (Williams, 1999).

Preeventfoods
Liquid or Solid?

Some athletes may find liquid meals to be easier to prepare and digest before a competition.  Therefore, liquid meals may be more practical for some athletes. However, they do not affect physical performance any differently than a well-balanced solid pre-competition meal (Williams, 1999).

Examples of Pre-Event Meals
of Approximately 500 Calories
The following sample meals provide approximately 500 Calories per meal.  The following number of servings from Canada’s Food Guide provide approximately 500 Calories per meal:  3 servings from Grain Products, 1 serving from Fruit & Vegetables, 1 serving from Milk Products and ½  a serving from Meat & Alternatives.
Preeventmeals
*Add 250-500 ml (1-2 cups) Cool Water with each meal.

Adapted from Sports Nutrition Resource Manual (1999) and Williams (1999)

During Competition

Endurance Events
Carbohydrate ingested during prolonged exercise lasting greater than 1 hour can help maintain blood glucose levels and reduce the psychological perception of effort during the later stages.  Carbohydrate intake is definitely recommended in events lasting more than 90 minutes.  Drinking a Commercial or Homemade Sport Drink which contains approximately 6-8% carbohydrate would likely be adequate.  In the case of ultra-distance, a hypotonic salt solution may also be recommended (Williams, 1999).  Ask a Sport Nutritionist for more information about what would be most appropriate for your event.

Fluid losses incurred through sweating must also be replaced. Especially in hot conditions, fluid replenishment is more important than carbohydrate.  Fluid should be replaced by drinking about 125 ml of fluid every 10-20 minutes during the event.  If you select a sports drink, these volumes should provide both adequate carbohydrate and fluid.
Events Less Than 60 Minutes
If you have normal liver and muscle glycogen stores, glucose (a simple unit of carbohydrate) intake is likely not necessary for continuous exercise bouts lasting 60 minutes or less.  It is important to ensure that you have enough liver and muscle glycogen by increase carbohydrate intake on the days leading up to competition.

Some recent research has suggested that carbohydrate consumed during activity may benefit well-trained athletes who can work at high intensities for 1 hour.  Research has shown that individuals engaged in endurance-type contests with intermittent bouts of sprinting, such as ice hockey or soccer may benefit from carbohydrate supplements taken during the game.  Drinking a commercial or homemade sport drink will provide sufficient carbohydrate.

Post Competition
BagelSeveral studies have shown that ingesting carbohydrate during the rest interval between two prolonged exercise bouts improves performance in the second bout because it restores glycogen in the muscle and liver (Williams, 1999).

When quick recovery is needed, consuming foods and fluids that contain carbohydrate within 15 to 30 minutes post activity will promote rapid re-fuelling.  Click “Foods to Fuel Your Muscles” for suggestions.

Summary
Green Apple
As an athlete, you want to be able to maximize your natural ability through physical training, skill and tactic development, post exercise treatment, injury rehabilitation and mental preparation etc. Sports nutrition is an important part of all athletes’ training programs. As you have seen, proper nutrition is important not only on the day of competition but during the months, even years before a competition. Why so long before? Because the food you eat today will form the building blocks of your muscles and bones in six months time.  You need to fuel your muscles to get the most out of each training session.

If you eat quality, quantity and variety in your diet then you are on your way to maximizing your potential as a high performance athlete.


References
Brewer, J. (1994). Nutritional aspects of women’s soccer. Journal of Sport Science, 12: S35–S38.

Logiform (2000). Fuel 2.1a Pro.

Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. (1997). Canada’s Food Guide To Healthy Eating. Ontario: Health Canada.

Sports Medicine Council of Alberta. (1999). Sports Nutrition Resource Manual.

Wilkens, L. (1997). NBA Power Conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Williams, M. H. (1999). Nutrition for Health, Fitness & Sport. New York: WCB McGraw-Hill.

Dietitians of Canada, American Dietetic Association, American College of Sports Medicine (Dec 2000):  Position Paper:  Nutrition and Athletic Performance.